After being admitted to candidacy, the student must complete a dissertation showing that the student is capable of independent research or other creative effort. A successful dissertation usually represents the most extensive and intensive scholarly work the student has performed to date. Completing the dissertation will lead the student up to the cutting edge of research (however defined by the discipline) conducted at that time in his or her field of research. A dissertation must address a significant question and demonstrate that its author can interpret findings and formulate conclusions that are the result of independent thinking and sustained evaluation of source materials. These findings must be expressed in clear and grammatical language that is well organized into cogent and coherent argument. A dissertation that contains the student’s published or in-press manuscripts, or excerpts from these manuscripts, shall, in the preface, describe these materials and their contribution to the dissertation.